37 tutorials Linux

Linux is a Unix like operating system kernel developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991. The Linux kernel is used in a huge range of electronic devices including computers, phones, embedded systems, home appliances, etc.

Why is it called GNU/Linux sometimes?

It’s a long story, but unless you are a kernel developer you don’t interact with the Linux kernel directly every day. A kernel cannot run by itself, it needs programs and applications. The story goes that Richard Stallman, a pioneer of the free software movement in the 80s was trying to build a free ( free as in freedom ) operating system, and by the early 90s he had all the programs and applications he needed to complete the operating system, he was just lacking a kernel. When Linus Torvalds released his kernel in 1991, it was chosen as the GNU kernel and thus the GNU operating system was completed. The combination of GNU and Linux is what we call today a Linux Distribution. Many programs we use in a Linux distribution were built by GNU so to give credit to Richard Stallman many people call Linux GNU/Linux. Debian one of the first Linux distributions that came out of this duo, still refer to their Linux distribution GNU/Linux. It is important to note that Richard Stallman tried to create his own kernel called GNU Hurd but he never was able to make it stable enough to include it in the GNU operating system, so Linux was chosen instead.

Why isn’t Linux popular?

Linux is the most popular operating system in the world, people just don’t see it. Linux is like the air, is here and everywhere but people don’t see it and don’t talk about it. Many people haven’t even heard of the word Linux in their life even though they use an Android device every day. 95% of all web servers powering the Internet today are using Linux, NASA uses Linux to launch rockets into space, the international space station use Linux for their computing, etc. 82% of all smart phones in the world are powered by Android which uses Linux for its kernel, and most likely the fridge and microwave you use in your kitchen everyday are powered by a Linux based firmware. People that claim that Linux is not popular are probably referring to Linux popularity in the desktop market dominated by Windows and Mac OS, and they are correct, Linux has never been popular in the desktop market. as of now the Linux desktop market share is about 2%. Why Linux has never been popular in the desktop market is up for debate, but the fact that nobody owns Linux has made it difficult to market the operating system to the general masses.

What are the best Linux distributions to run in a laptop or desktop?

  • Ubuntu – is probably the most popular Linux distribution to use in a laptop/desktop right now.
  • Linux Mint – Many people like to use Linux Mint because it comes with everything installed out of the box. there is no media codecs, and other proprietary stuff to install, Mint includes it all by default.
  • Fedora – Fedora is the free Linux distribution packaged by Redhat. many people like Fedora because it includes cutting edge technologies in every release, and it features GNOME, the most used desktop environment in the Linux world.
  • OpenSUSE – for people that prefer the KDE desktop environment, OpenSUSE is regarded as the best KDE distro by many.
  • Debian – Debian is the father of Ubuntu, Linux Mint, and so many other Linux distributions. if you want to start from the root, use Debian.
  • Elementary OS – Elementary OS is an Ubuntu derivative Linux distribution that resembles the Mac OS interface a lot. many people like it because it is very gorgeous and easy to use.
  • Arch Linux – Arch Linux is revered by many Linux nerds. if you really want to learn Linux, you should try installing Arch to get an idea what you’re really up to. like the nerds say, when you learn Ubuntu or Fedora you learn Ubuntu or Fedora, but when you learn Arch, you learn Linux.

What are the best Linux distributions to run in a server?

  • Ubuntu Server – Ubuntu has a large presence in the server environment especially in cloud environments like Amazon, Windows Azure, and a bazillion of web hosting companies.
  • RedHat/CentOS – Redhat and its derivative CentOS is still the preferred Linux distribution to run on servers by many.
  • SUSE Linux – SUSE is a very popular server Linux distribution in Europe, and liked by many because it includes full solutions and is backed by a big name like Novell.
  • Debian – Many people run Debian on the servers because of its stability and long life support.

In this page you will find many tutorials based on Linux and applications that use Linux as their preferred operating system.

Its surprising but Microsoft is playing nice with the open source community now, they are making some of their software available on Linux. They started with .NET and now SQL, I guess their mantra now is “if you can’t beat them, join them. Anyway, in this tutorial I will show you step by step how you can install Microsoft SQL server in Ubuntu for testing purposes. Prerequisite You need at least 4GB of memory on the machine you want install SQL on You need Ubuntu 16.04 or 16.10 ( haven’t tested it in any other distro ) Installing SQL Make…

Don’t you hate getting those IT requests to replace toners in printers  at the office? yep! me too, if you have Nagios installed and want Nagios to let you know when toner’s are running low in those printers then there is a script to quickly do that. Download the script from this link I used version 3 for my printers. Remember to make the script executable when you upload it to your /usr/local/nagios/libexec directory ( or wherever you keep your plugins )  then open your commands.cfg file and add this command: define command { command_name check_snmp_printer command_line /usr/local/nagios/libexec/check_snmp_printer -H $HOSTADDRESS$…

In Ubuntu 16.04 you can move the launcher to the bottom of the screen by typing this command in terminal: gsettings set com.canonical.Unity.Launcher launcher-position Bottom To move the launcher back to the left type: gsettings set com.canonical.Unity.Launcher launcher-position Left

I moved this site from the domain forevergeeks.com to ittutorials.net a few weeks ago because I think the latter domain makes more sense for the type of content I publish here. The concerned I had about the move was that I’ve been using forevergeeks.com for a long time ( almost 10 years ) so there are many links and people that would get cut off if I did the move without implementing a redirect. I didn’t want that to happen, I wanted a seamless transition from the old domain to the new one  without breaking any link or cutting people…

If you need to back up your Ubuntu servers to a Windows share on your network,  then on this tutorial I will show you how you can accomplish that. This tutorial is based on Ubuntu, but the procedure should work in all Linux distributions. I have a Centos server that I backup using this script as well. Create the Windows share The first thing you need to do is to create the Windows share where the Ubuntu backup files will be dumped to. For example, I created a shared folder in my windows server called “LinuxBackup” for this backup. Create…

To install the ownCloud client in a Windows 10 computer go to this URL https://owncloud.org/install/ and under “Sync your data” click on the Desktop Clients URL – that will bring you to the download page. Click to download the client for Windows. The latest ownCloud client version at the time of this writing is 2.1.1. Click on the setup.exe file after the downloading is complete, and the ownCloud client installation wizard should come up: Click on Next. Make sure the Integration for Windows Explorer option is checked, and click on Next again. Chose the Destination folder normally the default is…

If you want to monitor the temperature and humidity level of your server room with Nagios then there is a plugin for that. I personally don’t go to the server room regularly so I wouldn’t know if the AC failed in that room until probably its too late, so getting automatic alerts when the room gets too hot or too cold is a good idea.  In this tutorial I will guide you step by step on how to setup a temperature sensor in your server room , and set Nagios to notify you when the temperature or humidity level is…

If you want to check the health status of a Dell server through OpenManage with Nagios then there is a plugin for that. You will get an alert from Nagios whenever there is a physical problem with the server like the RAID, battery, and many other components. Using this plugin Nagios will basically grab all the alerts reported on the Dell OpenManage console and display it in the Nagios web dashboard and send notifications if you set it to. Install OpenManage on the server The first thing you need to do is to install the OpenManage software on the server…

The soon to be released Ubuntu desktop version is 16.04. In this tutorial I will go step-by-step on how to Install it in a fresh new computer or virtual machine. 1. Downloading the ISO image Download the ISO image from the Ubuntu website http://www.ubuntu.com/desktop  2. Burn the ISO image to a DVD or Flash Drive If you are installing Ubuntu on your laptop or desktop, burn the ISO image to a DVD or flash drive, and boot the computer from that media. 3. Boot computer to installation wizard The first screen you will get when booting from the DVD or…

Ubuntu 16.04 is the new upcoming long term support server release from Ubuntu. The final version is expected to be released April 21st 2016, almost a month and a half from now. Ubuntu 16.04 features the kernel 4.4 , PHP 7 with Apache 2.4.x, etc. In this tutorial I will go through step by step on how to install Ubuntu 16.04 server on a physical server or VM. Getting the ISO image Before April 21st, you can get the daily server image from this URL . After April 21st you can download the server image from the Ubuntu official website…

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